In conflict situations, women and girls are at greatly increased risk of physical and sexual violence. Many women and girls are subjected to rape including gang rape, forced marriages with enemy soldiers, sexual slavery, and other forms of violence (being forced to witness others being raped, mutilations, etc.). Many have fl ed their homes, have lost their families and livelihoods, and may have little or no access to health care. All these factors create conditions in which women and girls’ vulnerability to HIV is disproportionately increased. This information bulletin is the second in a series highlighting the intersections of violence against women and HIV/AIDS and it focuses on sexual violence against women in confl ict settings and their risks for acquiring HIV.