Against the background of the Global Compact on Refugees (GCR) adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in December 2018, the Refugee Response Index (RRI) is a tool designed to assess and monitor countries’ response to refugees and asylum seekers. The RRI covers each component of an adequate refugee response and can be used in any country context, regardless of size and contribution to the global refugee response. With support from the European Commission, the Refugee Response Index was successfully pilot tested in Kenya and Costa Rica, and the findings from this process informed the refinement of the indicators and methodology. The framework organises relevant indicators into six distinct pillars reflecting the main components of the refugee response as defined by international experts on refugee law, policy and practice. The RRI aims to be an analytical and collaborative tool with the potential to identify positive developments and any shortcomings to help support refugee-related decision-making, policy development, programme planning, monitoring and evaluation, and research and management systems through promoting informed discussions including scenario analysis on country-specific and the global refugee response.