This report provides a comprehensive review of the challenges for low and moderate income housing. It focuses on the issues of affordability, accessibility and sustainability in resolving the housing problem. It looks at both formal and informal instruments and how experiences in developed countries and instruments in addressing middle income households can help inspire solutions for low and moderate income housing. The report examines a whole range of major instruments and experiences across the developing and developed worlds. It will provide inspirations for governments, local authorities, partners, private sectors and civil society in their pursuit of innovative instruments to meet the challenges of affordability, accessibility and sustainability in realising the vision of œadequate shelter for all?.