The aim of this paper is to examine the link between land access (property rights) and gender (female and male) poverty in rural areas in Côte d’Ivoire, which economy is mainly based on agriculture products. The study particularly distinguishes households which head of family is a woman from those headed by a man. Several studies have shown that women headed households are the most exposed to poverty, specifically in rural areas. In effect, while this group of households can have a lucrative activity in urban areas, their activity is subject to land access in rural areas. The issue of property rights on rural lands is then essential in programs for gender poverty alleviation in rural areas.