Markets are a crucial component of how people survive. Understanding how markets are functioning and disrupted in emergencies is critical to any analysis of hunger, and to food and livelihood security. The Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis Toolkit (EMMA) is a guidance manual to assist front-line staff to do rapid assessments of market systems in the first few weeks of a crisis. Its purpose is to improve early response planning so that resources are used effectively, and so that opportunities are not missed to bolster future recovery in the local economy. This toolkit can help prevent lasting damage to the livelihoods, jobs and businesses on which people's long-term security depends. EMMA is designed for generalists, as well as specialist staff working in the food security, shelter, water and sanitation sectors. The author takes them through ten practical steps so they can both understand the important market aspects of an emergency situation, and communicate this knowledge promptly and effectively to decision-makers. EMMA assumes limited previous experience of economic or market analysis. Instead, the focus is on simple visual, graphical and largely qualitative ways of describing the impact of the emergency on people and on the critical market systems upon which they most rely.