This Guidance Note focuses on the role of natural resources in triggering, escalating or sustaining violent conflict. Its aim is to provide practical guidance on the role that the UN and EU can play in early warning and assessment, structural conflict prevention (long-term measures) and direct conflict prevention (short-term measures). It is meant to provide a combination of strategic advice and operational guidance, as well as to unite existing tools and guidance under a single framework.To improve capacity for land and natural resource management (NRM) and conflict prevention, the EU partnered with the UN Framework Team in late 2008. The aim of this partnership was to develop and implement a strategic multi-agency project focused on building the capacity of national stakeholders, the UN system, and the EU to prevent land and natural resources from contributing to violent conflict. The partnership is also designed to enhance policy development and programme coordination between key actors at the level of country offices. This Guidance Note is one of the first outcomes of this project.This Guidance Note has been prepared by the Conflict Prevention Group at UNDP’s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR). It was prepared on behalf of the Framework Team and in collaboration with the Standing Committee of the project, consisting of the EU, UNDESA, UNDP, UNEP, UN-HABITAT, DPA and PBSO. It was submitted for peer review to participating UN departments and UN AFPs.