West and Central Africa is the region with the world’s second-highest HIV burden. While progress in the HIV response has been slow, political will is positioned to tackle the challenges. Less than half of pregnant and breastfeeding women were covered by prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services in 2017. An estimated 69,000 adolescents aged 10–19 years were newly infected with HIV in 2017, a number only 1 per cent lower than in 2010. About the same number (67,000) of estimated new HIV infections occurred among children aged 0–9 years in 2017. Paediatric HIV treatment coverage in 2017 was just 26 per cent.