The report highlights the urgency to address the deteriorating condition of food traded across official and unofficial border crossings, the increasing malnutrition among farming families of host communities and the needs of rural host communities to recover their food production and income generating functions, particularly those in the border areas of Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey and peri-urban areas of Egypt. Specific attention needs to be given to the threat of transboundary animal and plant diseases and pests. As a result of disruption of traditional trade routes, uncontrolled livestock movement and smuggling of agricultural commodities across borders with Syria have increased. The absence of adequate animal health, sanitary and phytosanitary controls are compounding the risk of animal and crop diseases and pests in the region. The report also confirms that coping strategies of both host communities and refugees are seriously eroded as time passes. To cope with the growing pressure of the crisis on affected vulnerable communities in the neigbouring countries, including the increasing influxes of refugees, there is an urgent need to increase income generating opportunities for host communities. This is necessary in order for these communities to be able to feed themselves and strengthen their potential to assist the refugees.