‘Refugees are not welcome’: Digital racism, online placemaking and the evolving categorization of Syrians in Turkey

This article presents a unique case study on Twitter to show the evolution modes of racialized expression online. We define digital racism by illustrating how the figure of ‘the Syrian refugee’ in Turkey is depicted through Twitter publics at the cusp of both the mundane and dramatic events. Our social media analysis comprises 106K tweets collected through hashtags and mentions for a year between 2018 and 2019 during mundane events related to Syrians in Turkey as well as during the Turkish state’s occupation of Northern Syria in October 2019.